Saturday, 13 October 2012

Join ARMY DENTAL CORPS as SSC Officer- 2012

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The lasst date is 31st October 2012.
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Monday, 18 June 2012

Latest Dental Decks

Links for latest Decks!

NBDE Part 1- Remembered and Unreleased Questions

Part I - Remembered and Unreleased Exams

Thursday, 24 May 2012

Goa to make foray into forensic dentistry

 The Dental Council of India has approved a three-year master of dental surgery (MDS) course in forensic dentistry.
Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence.
"The proposal to have MDS in forensic dentistry has been approved by the Dental Council of India at a meeting on May 14 at Chandigarh. The proposal will now be sent to the central government for an issuance of notification," said Dr Ajit Dinkar, professor at Goa Dental College, who is also a member of Dental Council of India.
Dental Council of India is a statutory body incorporated to regulate dental education and the profession of dentistry throughout India.
Dr Dinkar explained that forensic dentistry is the need of the hour and there are hardly any qualified forensic dentists in the country. Forensic dentists are responsible for six main areas of practice which include identification of human remains, identification in mass fatalities, assessment of bite mark injuries, assessment of cases of abuse (child, spousal, elderly) and age estimation.
The evidence that may be derived from teeth is age (in children) and identification of the person to whom the teeth belong. This is done using dental records including radiographs, antemortem (prior to death) and postmortem photographs and DNA. "In Goa, we get several cases of drowning deaths, which are referred to us for forensic dentistry," said Dr Dinkar.
The other type of evidence is that of bite marks left on either the victim (by the attacker), the perpetrator (from the victim of an attack), or on an object found at the crime scene. Bite marks are often found on children who are abused.

Friday, 23 March 2012

Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy

If you're planning to become pregnant or suspect you're already pregnant, it's important that you see a dentist right away. Pregnancy may cause unexpected oral health changes due to hormones—particularly an increase in estrogen and progesterone—which can exaggerate the way in which gum tissues react to plaque. Research continues to show that overall health and oral health coincide, so it's especially important for you to maintain good oral hygiene throughout your pregnancy. Visiting your dentist will allow him or her to assess your oral condition and map out a dental plan for the remainder of your pregnancy.

How does plaque build-up affect me?

When plaque isn't removed, it can cause gingivitis—red, swollen, tender gums that are more likely to bleed. So-called "pregnancy gingivitis" affects most pregnant women to some degree and generally begins to surface as early as the second month of pregnancy. If you already have gingivitis, the condition is likely to worsen during pregnancy. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis, a more serious form of gum disease that includes bone loss. 

How does gingivitis affect my baby's health?

Research suggests a link between pre-term delivery, low birthweight babies, and gingivitis. Excessive bacteria can enter the bloodstream through your gums; the bacteria can travel to the uterus, triggering the production of chemicals called prostaglandins, which are suspected to induce premature labor. 

How can I prevent gingivitis?

You can prevent gingivitis by keeping your teeth clean, especially near the gumline. You should brush with fluoride toothpaste at least twice a day and after each meal when possible. You also should floss each day. Good nutrition keeps the oral cavity healthy and strong; in particular, you should get plenty of vitamins C and B12. More frequent cleanings from the dentist also will help control plaque and prevent gingivitis. 

What are pregnancy tumors?

Pregnant women are at risk for developing pregnancy tumors—inflammatory, non-cancerous growths that develop between the teeth or when swollen gums become irritated. These localized growths or swellings are believed to be related to excess plaque. Normally, the tumors are left alone and will usually shrink on their own after the baby's birth; however, if a tumor is uncomfortable and interferes with chewing, brushing, or other oral hygiene procedures, your dentist may decide to remove it. 

Are there any dental procedures I should avoid?

Routine exams and cleanings can be performed throughout pregnancy; however, non-emergency procedures should only be performed during the second trimester of pregnancy. Dental emergencies that create severe pain can be treated during any trimester, but your obstetrician should be consulted during any emergency that requires anesthesia or whenever medication is prescribed. X-rays should only be taken for emergency situations. Lastly, elective and cosmetic procedures should be postponed until after the baby's birth. Because every woman is different, it's best to discuss and determine a treatment plan with your dentist.


New Gel May Mean No More Dental Anesthesia Shots

Anesthetic gel made from a rare plant found deep in the Peruvian rainforest has been found to be so potent that it could potentially replace the uncomfortable anesthetic injections used prior to dental procedures — and provide a natural remedy for aching teeth, scientists say.
The remarkable painkilling properties of the Acmella oleracea plant, commonly referred to as Spilanthes Extract, have been used for centuries if not millennia by Incas to treat toothache, ulcers, abscesses and to even clean teeth.
Indigenous tribes revealed the secrets of the plant to Cambridge University researcher Dr. Fran├žoise Barbira Freedman, who has spent more than 30 years visiting and living with the Keshwa Lamas tribe of Peru. Freedman said the plant could literally transform western dental practice.
Freedman became the first westerner to be accepted into the secretive society in 1975. During one of her trips to the rainforest, she suffered severe pain in her wisdom teeth. She was given the remedy by the tribe‘s medicine men and the pain subsided “immediately,” she said.
Years later, she was asked to provide Cambridge with some examples of the remedy. She had listed several plants that were included in the remedy with the oleracea plant being listed at the bottom. For some reason the list got turned around and oleracea was the first on the list. Once back in the UK, oleracea was tested first and immediately proved successful.
She said the plant, which works by blocking nerve endings to provide a numbing effect that can last for an hour or more, had proved successful in early stage clinical trials with no apparent side effects. She received positive feedback from patients on the benefits of usage.
The gel was considered more efficient than the standard anesthetic used when patients with gum disease need pain relief. The effects of the oleracea plant lasted longer, and patients were more likely to attend follow-up appointments.
In informal tests, the plant extract also helped treat mouth ulcers and ease pain due caused by dentures and braces.
Freedman is hoping to bring the remedy to market under her company, Ampika Ltd., a spin-off of the university’s commercial arm Cambridge Enterprise, by as early as 2014 as a natural alternative to synthetic painkillers.
She said she plans to share any profits from the sale of the gel with the Keshwa Lamas community in Peru.
“This treatment for toothache means we could be looking at the end of some injections in the dentist’s surgery,” she told The Telegraph. “We’ve had really clear results from tests so far, particularly for procedures such as scaling and polishing, and there are many other potential applications.”
These range from soothing the pain of teething babies to relieving irritable bowel syndrome. “We think people prefer to use natural products and this is particularly the case for baby teething, for which, to my knowledge, there is no clinically tested natural alternative,” she added.
Researchers at Ampika plan to publish the trial results in an international dental journal and conduct further tests in several countries. They also want to refine the formula to develop a higher strength and longer-lasting product.
A. oleracea is a yellow flowering herb which originates from the Peruvian Amazon and was also brought to southern Asia by sailors in the 18th and 19th centuries under the name “toothache plant.”
On the Net:

Source: RedOrbit Staff & Wire Reports

Wednesday, 7 March 2012

Orthodontics MCQs

Q.1)How much force is required to tip an incisor?
a) 20-30gms
b) 50-75gms
c) 40-50gms
d) 10-20 gms

Answer is b.

Q.2)Dr. E.H angle had published his practical classification of malocclusion for first time in the year?
d) none of above

Q.3) Wires also called shape memory are?
a) stainless steel
b) multiflex round wire
c) nickel titanium wire
d) stainless steel edgewise wire

Answer is c

Q.4) When the diameter of wire is doubled the force exerted on teeth is?
a) 4 times
b) 1/2 times
c) 8 times
d) 16 times


Q.5) In nitinol wire shape remember in?
a) austenite form
b) martensite form
c) both
d) none

Answer is b

Q.6)Column angle is seen in which malocclusion?
a) class 2 division 1 malocclusion
b) class  2 division 2 malocclusion
c) bilateral posterior cross bite
d) class 3 malocclusion

Answer is b

Q.7) Which contemparay orthodontic wire has maximum surface tension?
a) Stainless steel
b) Ajw wires
c) TMA wires
d) niti wires

Answer is c

Q8) The pitch of hyrax expansion is?
a) 0.25mm
b) 1mm
c) 1.5mm

Answer is b

Q.9) Key ridge is
a) Present in relation to upper 6
b) Lower point on outline of zygoma
c) Highest point on outline of zygoma
d) Next to external auditory meatus

Answer is b

Q.10)Down patient shows ?
a) Midline retrusion
b) retruded mandible
c) protruded mandible
d) none of above

Answer is a

Q.11)Labial displacement of maxillary canine leading to crowding in maxillary anterior segment due to lack of space is mainly caused by

a.   Eruption of maxillary canine before that of maxillary first premolar
b.   Eruption of maxillary lateral incisor before that of maxillary canine
c.   Eruption of maxillary canine before that of maxillary lateral incisors
d.   Eruption of maxillary first premolar before that of maxillary canine

Answer is a

Q.12) The term ‘gingival zenith’ is used to describe the
a.   Gingival height
b.   Gingival shape
c.   The most apical point of the gingival tissue
d.   Stippled appearance

 Answer is C. For maxillary central incisors & canines gingival zenith is located distal to longtudnal axis of the respective teeth, while for maxillary lateral incisor, it is located on the long axis of the tooth. (Ref. Pg 190 - 1, Proffit)

Q.13) Serial extraction is contraindiacted in all of following except?
a) open bite
b) spaced dentition
c) flaring of teeth
d) anodontia

Answer is c. Reference 3rd edition page 228-229

Q.14) A patient is involved in chronic mouth breathing, the clinical examination of patient reveals
a) convex profile, long face
b)concave profile , long face
c) convex profile,short face
d) concave profile,short face

Answer is a
Reference 3rd edition page 104,
The type of malocclusion associated with mouth breathing is called long face syndrome or classical adenoid face and narrow ( Dolichocephalic and leptoprosopic) face short and flaccid lip constricted upper arch and anterior marginal gingivitis are the features

Q15) Cartilage differ from bone in that it grows by?
a)appositional growth pattern
b) interstitial growth pattern
c) none
d) growth of cells in lacunae

Answer is b. Reference profitt 4th edition page 40

Q.16) Change in arch difference in mandibular arch posterior to first molar?
a) Decrease by 4mm
b) Increase by 1mm
c)Increase by 4mm
d) Increase by 2mm

Answer is a . Reference Mc donald 7th edition page 742

Q.17)Cement used for cementation of orthodontics bracket is?
a) composite
b) Resins
c) Gic
d) none

Answer is a.
Reference Manapalli, 2nd edition page 146
Composite is used in cementation of orthodontics brackets, maryland bridges, ceramic crown,inlay, onlays and laminates venner

Q.18) Edge wise appliance are used with
a) On incisal edge of anterior teeth
b) with rectangular arch wire
c) with labial arch at incisal and gingival arch of each bracket
d) to obtain edge to edge occlusion

Answer is b

Q.19)In examining a child patient normal gingiva is diagnosed on basic of follwoing except
a) contour
b) stippling
c) sulcus depth
d) depth of vestibule

Answer is d

Q.20)Primary second molar usually erupt
a)8-14 months
b)14-20 months
c) 20-30 months
d)30-36 months

Answer is c

Q.21)Compared to a permanent tooth abscess a primary tooth abcess a primary tooth abcess is more diffuse because
a) surrounding bone is less dense
b) Roots of primary tooth are farther apart
c) pain is less, therefore abcess is not detected early
d) young patients are less resistant to infection

Answer is a

Q.22) A stainless steel crown should normally extend below gingival crest approximately?
Answer is a

Q.23) In performing the pulp amputation for pulpotomy , it is wise to use a spoon excavator to avoid
a)perforation of pulpal floor
b)pulling out of radicular portion of root
c)maceration of pulp at amputation site
d)all of above

Answer is d

Q.24) Basal bone differ from alveolar bone in its
a) function
b) osteocyte metabolism
c) histologic staining property
d)all of above

Answer is a

Q.25)The greatest relative dimension of facial at birth is?
a) height
b) width
c) depth
d) all the above dimensions are same at the birth

Answer is a

Q.26) Prenormal occlusion is?
a) class 1 malocclusion
b) class 2 malocclusion
c) class 3 malocclusion
d)bimaxillary protrusion

Answer is c

Q.27) The midpalatal suture is most likely to open at which of follwoing ages of expansion?
a)18 year old
b)13 year old
c)25 year old
d)55 year old

Answer is b

Q.28) Whip spring is used for correction of
a) rotation
b) proclination
c) crossbite
d) open bite

Answer is a.

Whip spring is a cantilever spring used for roated maxillary anterior. Modified whip spring are used for:
a)Disimpaction of mid to severe mesially impacted lower terminal molars
b)Flaring of lower teeth

Q.29) Normal facial index is?
a) 65-75%
b) 75-80%
c) 80-90%

Answer is c

Martin and saller give facial index and cephalic index
Cephalic index= maximum skull width/ maximum skull length
Index values:
Mesocephalic ( Average) 76-81
Brachycephalic ( Broad skull ) 81-85.5
Dolichocephalic (<76%)

Facial index = Distance b/w nasion and gnathion/ bizygomatic width

Index value:
Euryproscopic ( broad) 79-83
Mesocephalic ( average)84-88
Leptoproscopic ( long) 88-93

Q.30) Synostosis is?
a) Fusion of two adjacent bone by cartilage
b) Early closure of suture or early fusion of bone by bone
c)Fusion of adjacent bone by fibrous cartilage
d)None of above

Answer is b

Choice a is synchondrosis
choice c is syndesmosis

Q.31) Example of fibrous joint is all except?
a) sutures

Answer is d.Choice d is synchondrosis and is primary cartilagenous and sympysis is secondary cartilagenous joint

Q.32) Calcification of which bone is important for pubertal growth spurt?

a) Hamate
b) Pisiform
c) sessamoid
d) all of above

Answer is c

Calcification of sessamoid bone is one of important feature of pubertal growth spurt,which is earlier in females than male.

Hamate and pisiform - prepubertal growth
Adductor+ ulnar sessamoid = Pubertal growth

Q.33) Implants and vital staining technique are used to study?
a) dynamic change
b)static change
c) both
d) none

Reference bhalagi 3rd edition page 13

Implants and vital staining technique are used to study dynamic change occuring during deposition and resorption whereas radiograph shows static change

Q34) Maxilla has how many ossification centre?
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) 4

Answer is a. Reference bhalagi 3rd edition page 28
For mandible , the answer is b. The maxilla has 3 ossification centre , one primary is for maxilla proper ( which arise at infraorbital foramen above canine fossa) and remaining two ossification centre are for premaxilla

Q.35) Oral gratification theory was given by?
a) sheldon
b) sigmond freud
c) benjamin
d) sears and wise

Answer is a.
Oral gratification theory state that if child is not satisfied with sucking feeding period it will persist as symptom of emotional disturbance by digit sucking

According to Sigmond freud in oral phase of physchologic development, the mouth is believed to be oro erotic zone. The child has tendency to place fingers or any other thing in mouth

According to oral drive theory of sears and wise prolonged sucking leads to thumb sucking

Benzamin theory state that thumb sucking arise from rooting reflex. Rooting reflex is movement of infant head and tongue toward on object touching cheek. The rooting reflex disappear in normal individual by 7-8 months of age

Q.28) The articular angle is large if mandible is?
a) retrognathic
b) prognathic
c) none
d) any of above

Answer is a. Articular angle is S-AR-GO. If angle is large mandible is small and vice versa

Q.29)Active component of fixed appliance is?
a) Bracket
b) buccal tube
c) ligature
d) seperator

Answer is d
Active component of fixed appliance include seperators, elastics, arch wire and spring
Passive component of fixed appliance is bracket , buccal tube,ligature wire and lock pin

Q.30) uprighting spring is used to?
a) derotate a tooth
b) move the root in mesiodistal direction
c)move the root in palatal direction
d) closure of space

Answer is b

A option - elastic thread
c option uprighting spring
d option elastic chain, elastic module

Q31) If value of bjork sum is >400 it indicates
a) vertical growth pattern
b) horizontal growth pattern
c) both
d) none

Answer is a

Q32) M spring is used for?
a)closure of midline diastema
b)for treatment of open bite
c) for treatment of posterior cross bite
d) for occlusal settting

Answer is a. For b , box elastics are used. and for c cross elastics are used.

Q32) Cetlin appliance is used for?
a) Molar distilization'
b)anterior cross bite
c) posterior cross bite
d) for midline diastema

Answer is a.

Q.33) Coffin spring is used for?
a)expand the dental arches
b) move canine distally
c) move canine palatally
d) retraction of protrusion

Answer is a

Q34) Development of palate occurs at
a) 5th week IUL
b) 8th week IUL
c) 9th week IUL
d) 11 week IUL

Answer is c

Q35) Force required in tongue is?
a) 10-20 gm
b) 25-30gm
c) 30-50gm
d) 50-60gm

Answer is d

Q36) shape of maxillary sinus at birth?

Q37)Noonan Syndrome which is not seen??
Long face
wide mouth
delayed erruption

Q38)Reinforced anchorage example is?
a) bite plane anterior
b) posterior bite plan
c) inclined plane
d) all of above

Answer is c
Reference 3rd ed page 208.
In reinforced or multiple anchorage more than one type of resistance unit is utilized. Orthopedic appliance , anterior inclined plane and transpalatal arch are example of reinforced anchorage. Closure of midline diastema, split expansion appliance and correction of cross bite are example of reciprocal anchorage

Q.39) Moment to force ratio for bodily movement is
a) 6
b) 8
c) 10
d) >10

Answer is d

Movement                   Moment to force ratio
Controlled tipping         1 to 7
Bodily movement            8 to 10
Torque                     Greater than 10

Q.40)  Sunday bite is defined as:
a)  Habitual forward posturing of mandible to Class I. 
b)  Posturing of mandible to Class III due to a premature contact.
c)  Posturing the mandible laterally to establish maximum cuspation 
in bilaterally narrow maxilla cases.
d)  Posturing the mandible back to Class II, when actually in Class 
e)  Under closure of jaw.

Answer is a

Q.41)Anterior Boltan ratio is:
a)  91.3%.
b)  100%.
c)  61.7%.
d)  82.3%.
e)  77.2%.
Key: e

Q42 1s t  order bends are:
a)  Tipping bends.
b)  Toquing bends.
c)  In and out bends.
d)  Anchorage bends.
e)  Up and down bends.
Key: c

Q43)  Face mask is primarily used to produce:
a)  Dorsal effect.
b)  AP effect.
c)  Ventral effect.
d)  Transverse effect.
e)  Vertical effect.
Key: b

Q.44)Bite of accommodation means:
a)  Habitual forward posturing of mandible to Class I. 
b)  Posturing of mandible to Class III due to a premature contact.
c)  Posturing the mandible laterally to establish maximum cuspation 
in bilaterally narrow maxilla cases.
d)  Posturing the mandible back to Class II, when actually in Class 
e)  Underclosure of mouth.
Key: c

Q45)The type of wires that are preferred for alignment during orthodontic treatment are
a.   Round in crossection
b.   Rectangular in crossection
c.   Square in corssection
d.   Tandem wire

. Use of tight fitting rectangular wires during this stage can slow down the alignment process and also increase the possibility of root resorption. (Rf. Pg 553, Proffit)

Q46) If the frankfort plane and mandibular plane meet beyond the occipital plane then patient is
a)horizontal grower
b) vertical grower
c) cant predict
d)deep bite

Answer is a

Q.47) Curve of wilson for mandibular teeth is?
d) both

Answer is a.
Curve of wilson is curve that contacts buccal and lingual cusp for mandibular teeth. It is a cross arch cross tooth curve indicating the height difference between supporting and non supporting cusps in occlusion

Lingual inclination of mandibular molars is basis for curve of wilson ie. curvature for mandibula ie. concave and maxillary teeth is convex

Q.48)Orthodontic tooth movement in pulpless teeth compared to vital teeth is
a.   Same for all teeth          b. More in maxillary teeth
c.    Less in maxillary teeth
d.    Depends on number of roots of the tooth

Answer is a.

Q.49) Unfavorable mixed dentition analysis is an indication for:
a)  Space maintenance and space regaining.
b)  Space maintenance and space supervision.
c)  Space regaining and gross discrepancy cases.
d)  Space supervision and gross discrepancy cases.
e)  Space maintenance.
Key: d

Q.50) Blanch test is used to identify
a) incompetant lips
b) deviated nasal septum
c) a shift in mandible during closing
d) abnormal frenal attachment

answer is d

Q.51)Overbite is defined as .. overlap of the incisors.
a. Horizontal
b. Vertical
c. Transverse
d. Mesiodistal

Q52)At what age should a child be referred for an orthodontic examination?
a. Three years
b. Six years
c. Seven years
d. Fourteen years

Q53)The line of occlusion is a smooth (catenary) curve passing
1-Through the central fossae of upper molars and across the cingulum of the upper anterior teeth.
2- through the central fossae of lower molars and across the cingulum of the lower anterior teeth.
3- Along the buccal cusps and incisal edges of the upper teeth.
4- Along the buccal cusps and incisal edges of the lower teeth.
a. 1 and 2
b. 2and 3
c. 1 and 4
d. 2 and 4

ANSWER IS A ,The line of occlusion is a smooth (catenary)
curve passing through the central fossa of each upper molar and
across the cingulum of the upper canine and incisor teeth. The
same line runs along the buccal cusps and incisal edges of the
lower teeth, thus specifying the occlusal as well as interarch relationships
once the molar position is established.
An excellent mathematical description of the natural
dental arch form is provided by a catenary curve, which is
the shape that a loop of chain would take if it were sus
pended from two hooks. The length of the chain and the
width between the supports determine the precise shape of
the curve. When the width across the first molars is used to
establish the posterior attachments, a catenary curve fitsthe dental arch form of the premolar-canine-incisor segment
of the arch very nicely for most individuals. Exceptions
include patients whose arches would fall into the
prosthodontists' classifications of square or tapering arch
forms. For all individuals, the fit is not as good if the catenary
curve is extended posteriorly, because the dental arch
normally curves slightly lingually in the second and third
molar region (Figure 12-46). Most of the preformed arch
wires offered by contemporary manufacturers are based on
a catenary curve, with average intermolar dimensions.
Although these arch wires are a good starting point, it
is apparent that even if one accepts the catenary curve as
ideal, their shape should be modified if the first molarwidths are unusually wide or narrow. Modifications to accommodate
for a generally more tapering or more square
morphology are also appropriate, and the second molars
must be "tucked in" slightly.

Another mathematical model of dental arch form,
originally advocated by Brader and often called the Brader
arch form, is based on a trifocal ellipse. The anterior seg
ment of the trifocal ellipse closely approximates the anterior
segment of a catenary curve, but the trifocal ellipse
gradually constricts posteriorly in a way that the catenary
curve does not . The Brader arch form,
therefore, will more closely approximate the normal position
of the second and third molars. It also differs from a
catenary curve in producing somewhat greater width across
the premolars.
Preformed arch wires prepared to an average Brader
arch form are available commercially in a limited range of
sizes, which can reduce the amount of individualization
necessary. Like the catenary curve, however, the Brader
arch form represents what the prosthodontists would call a
mid-range arch form, which will require some alteration

Q.54)Which of the following is defined as IOTN grade 5 ?
a. Increased overjet greater than 9 mm.
b. Increased and complete overbite with gingival or palatal trauma.
c. Anterior crossbite with greater than 2 mm discrepancy between CR and ICP.
d. Presence of supernumerary teeth.

Several indices for scoring how much the teeth deviate
from the normal, as indicators of orthodontic treatment
need, were proposed in the 1970s. Of these, Grainger's
Treatment Priority Index (TPI)30 is the most prominent
because it was used in the 1965-1970 U.S. population
surveys. None of the early indices were widely accepted for
screening potential patients, however.
More recently, Shaw and co-workers in the United
Kingdom developed a scoring system for malocclusion, the
Index of Treatment Need (IOTN), 31 that places patients in
five grades from "no need for treatment" to "treatment

Grade 5 (Extreme/Need Treatment)
5.i I mpeded eruption of teeth (except third molars) due to
crowding, displacement, the presence of
supernumerary teeth, retained deciduous teeth, and
any pathological cause.
5.h Extensive hypodontia with restorative implications
(more than one tooth per quadrant) requiring preprosthetic
5.a I ncreased overjet greater than 9 mm.
5.m Reverse overjet greater than 3.5 mm with reported
masticatory and speech difficulties.
5.p Defects of cleft lip and palate and other craniofacial
5.s Submerged deciduous teeth.

Q55)Who developed circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy?
a) angel
b) edward

answer is b

The first method, originally developed by Edwards, I I is
called circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy (CSF) where gingival fibres are incised to prevent relapse.Percision is performed under local anaesthesia with no 11 blade

Q56) X Occlusion is?
a) buccal crossbite in australian arborigines
b) seen in south pacific isllanders
c) seen in oriental population
d) seen in african population

answer is a

The findings are noted in present population groups that have remained largely unaffected by modern development:
crowding and malalignment of teeth are uncommon, but
the majority of the group may have mild anteroposterior
or transverse discrepancies, as in the Class III tendency of
South Pacific islanders 12 and buccal crossbite (X-occlusion)
in Australian aborigines

Q.57)When the gold wires were replaced by steel arch wires the reduction in the slot in the edgewise system was found to be?
a) 22 mil bracket
b) 28 mil bracket
c) 24 mil bracket
d) 18 mil bracket

answer is d

When steel arch wires replaced gold, Angle's original
engineering calculations were no longer valid because steel
wire of the same size was so much stiffer. An alternative was
to redesign the edgewise appliance, optimizing the bracket
slot size for steel. A reduction in slot size from 22 to 18 mil
was advocated for this purpose. Even with this smaller slot
size, full dimension steel wires still produce slightly greater
forces than the original edgewise system did, but the properties
of the appliance system are close to the original.
Good torque is possible with steel wires and 18 mil edgewise

Q58)The artistic
positioning bends are
a)first order bend
b) second order bend
c)third order

Answer is b

In the original edgewise
appliance, second-order bends, sometimes called artistic
positioning bends, were an important part of the finishing
phase of treatment . These bends
were necessary because the long axis of each tooth is inclined
relative to the plane of a continuous arch wire .Without adequate second-order bends, the incisor
teeth are positioned too straight up and down with
the roots too close together, producing an effect sometimes
disparagingly called the "orthodontic look". The contemporary edgewise brackets that have a
built-in tip for maxillary incisor teeth routinely produce a
more esthetically pleasing arrangement of the incisors
than was achieved in many instances with the early fixed

Q58)In mc namara analysis which of following plane is used?
a) frankfort horizontal plane
b)basion nasion line
c) both of above
d) none

answer is c

McNamara Analysis. The McNamara analysis,
originally published in 1983, 2 ` still represents the state of
the art in cephalometric measurement analysis reasonably
well. It combines elements of previous approaches (Ricketts
and Harvold) with original measurements to attempt a
more precise definition of jaw and tooth positions. In this
method, both the anatomic Frankfort plane and the basionnasion
line are used as reference planes. The anteroposterior
position of the maxilla is evaluated with regard to its
position relative to the "nasion perpendicular," a vertical
line extending downward from nasion perpendicular to theFrankfort plane

The McNamara analysis has two major strengths: (1) It
relates the jaws via the nasion perpendicular, in essence
projecting the difference in anteroposterior position of the
jaws to an approximation of the true vertical line. (Using a
true vertical line, perpendicular to the true horizontal
rather than anatomic Frankfort, would be better yet; the
major reason for not doing so in constructing the analysis
is that the cephalometric films from which the normative
data were derived were not taken in NHP) (2) The normative
data are based on the well-defined Bolton sample,
which is also available in template form, meaning that the
McNamara measurements are highly compatible with preliminary
analysis by comparison with the Bolton templates

Q59) Lower anterior inclined plane is at what degree to occlusal inclined plane?
a) 60

Answer is b
for upper answer will be a

Q60) Whip spring is?
a) fixed
b) semifixed
c) removable
d) functional

Answer is c

One of the simplest fixed appliances for anterior cross bite purpose
is a maxillary lingual arch with fingersprings (sometimes
referred to as whip springs). This appliance is indicated
for a very young child or preadolescent with whom compliance
problems are anticipated. It consists of a 36 mil
maxillary lingual arch to which 22 mil springs are soldered
. The springs are usually soldered on the
opposite side of the arch from the tooth to be corrected,
in order to increase the length of the spring and are most
effective if they are approximately 15 mm long. This
length provides exceptional flexibility and range, but occasionally
a spur is needed to serve as a guide wire to keep
the wires from slipping over the incisal edge of the incisors

Q61) Amount of force required to protact maxilla is?
b) 12-16oz
c) 16-20oz
d) 24 oz

Answer is d

Q62)Moyer mixed analysis give more accurate value for unerrupted teeth at
a)75 percent probability
b)50 percent probability
c) 70 percent probability
d)85 percent probability

answer is b

Q63)Example of fixed functional appliance is?
a)churro jumper
b)Mandibular anterior reposition applianace ( MARA)
c)sabbagh universal spring( sus)
d) all of above

answer is all of above

Removable functional- activator bionator, frankel
Semi fixed appliance- denholtz,bass appliances
Fixed functional appliance - herbest , jasper jumper, churro jumper, SUS appliance

Q64)Which is the correct colour code for tracing consective cephalograms (pretreatment,progress end of treatment, retention)
a)black,blue,red, green
b) black , red, green, blue
c)blue , red, green black
d)black,blue, green , red

Answer is a

Q65) Amount of force required to applied by chin cap to stop mandibular growth?
a) 1200-1600gms

Answer is b

Q66) The marrow found in maxilla is?
a) all fatty marrow
b) all red marrow
c) all fibrous marrow
d) a combination of fatty and fibrous marrow

Answer is a

Q67) Who was first to comment on craniofacial deformity?
a) celsus
b) hippocrates
c) fauchard
d) angle

Answer is b

Q68)In normal occlusion the teeth have?
a) Marginal contact
b) Edge to edge contacts
c) Cusp to cusp contacts
d) Surface contacts

Answer is d

Q69) Mills retractor is modification of?
a) Palatal canine retractor
b) buccal canine retractor
c) labial bow
d) adam clasp

Answer is c

Q70) At what age child is expected to have 12 erupted primary and 12 erupted permanent teeth?
a) 4.5 years
b)6.5 years
c) 8.5 years
d)11.5 years

answer is c

Q71) The first cephalometric analysis which emphasis vertical and horizontal relationship and interaction between them is?
a) down analysis
b) sassoni analysis
c) steiner analysis
d) harvold analysis

Answer is b

Q72)The incidence of cleft lip and palate is?
a) 1 in 600
b) 1in 700
c) 1 in 800
d) 1 in 900
Answer is c

Q73) Orthognathic decompasation is done?
a) is done at time of injury
b) in done before the surgery
c) is done after the surgery
d) nature itself decomponsate for dental decompression

Answer is 2 Reference peterson 4th edition page 466

Q74) Amount of magnification possible with panoramic radiograph is?
Answer is c

Q75) Angle, the father of orthodontics had interest in which branch of dentistry?
a) Prosthodontics
b) Community dentistry
c) Pedodontics
d) Periodontics
Answer is a

original interest was in prosthodontics, and he taught in
that department in the dental schools at Pennsylvania and
Minnesota in the 1880s. His increasing interest in dental
occlusion and in the treatment necessary to obtain normal
occlusion led directly to his development of orthodontics
as a specialty, with himself as the "father of modern

Q78) Natal teeth are defined as:
a)  Teeth present at the time of birth.
b)  Teeth erupting in the 2 nd -3rd  month.
c)  Teeth erupting between 6 months to 2 year.
d)  Teeth erupting after 1 year of age.
e)  Teeth erupting after 2 years of age.
Answer is a

Q79)ANB angle is used to assess:
a)  Sagittal jaw discrepancy.
b)  Vertical jaw discdrepancy.
c)  Soft tissue profile.
d)  Dental pattern.
e)  Crowding.

Q80)Bite of accommodation means:
a)  Habitual forward posturing of mandible to Class I. 
b)  Posturing of mandible to Class III due to a premature contact.
c)  Posturing the mandible laterally to establish maximum cuspation 
in bilaterally narrow maxilla cases.
d)  Posturing the mandible back to Class II, when actually in Class 
e)  Underclosure of mouth.
Key: c

Q81)Orthodontic appliances should not be reactivated more frequently than at
a. 1 week interval                   
b. 2 week interval
c. 3 week interval    
d. 4 week interval
 Ans. C. Activating the appliance too frequently short circuits the repair process & can produce damage to the teeth or bone that a longer appointment cycle would have prevented or atleast minimized

Q82)The most efficient orthodontic tooth movement is produced by
a.  Light & intermittent forces   b. Light & continuous forces
c.  Heavy & intermittent forces  b. Heavy &  continuous forces

Answer is B. Heavy & intermittent forces, though less efficient, can be clinically acceptable.

Q83) The sequence of completion of facial growth by plane of space is?
a)height, width, depth
b)depth width and height
c)width height and depth
d)width depth and height

answer is d

Q84)Which is not a essential diagnostic aid in orthodontics?
a)study models
b) opg
d)hand wrist radiographs

answer is d

Q85) A chin cap should be worn by patient for at least
a)6 hours a day
b)10 hours a day
c)14 hours a day
d)20 hours a day

answer s c

Q86)Stationary anchorage refers to anchor teeth which?
a) are banded
b) cannot move
c) are not free to tilt
d) are supported by extraoral forces

Answer is c

Q87)The first evidence of cartilage getting converted to bone in craniofacial skelton occur during?
a) Fourth post natal week
b) Eight prental week
c) Fourth prenatal week
d) Eight postnatal week

Answer is b. Reference bhalaji 4th edition page 25
The cranial base will be cartilagenous form till 7th week of prenatal form.After that , the bones of cranial base undergo both endochondral as well as intramembranous ossification.The first bone to show both intramembranous and endochondral ossification is occipital bone.

Q.88)Who proposed the nasal septum theory of craniofacial growth?
d)vander linder

answer is c
Rerence Ms rani 3rd edition page 77

Q89) Safety valve mechanism is?
a)The anteroposterior increment in maxilla at 14 years
b) Increase in mandibular intercanine width at 14 years
c) increase in mandibular height at 12 years
d) Increase in maxillary intercanine width at 12 years

Answer is d
Reference Text book of orthodontics by Sridhar Prem kumar1st ed page 20

In both males and females the maxillary intercanine dimesnsion act as safety valve during pubertal growth, where there is basal horizontal mandibular growth partly unmatched by growth of maxilla as mandibular growth downward and forward.The maxillary intercanine dimesnsion is brought forward, thus elliminating the flush terminal plane relation or residual class 2 tendencies

Q90) Ugly duckling stage coincides with transition pahse
a) First transition phase
b) Second transition phase
c) Intertransition phase
d) All of above

Answer is b. Reference bhalaji 3rd edition page 38

Q91) Steiner line use --- as reference plane?
a) gonion menton
b) Ans-Pns
c)Porion orbitale
d)gonion- gnathion

Answer is d
Reference bhalaji page 151

Analysis                      Reference plane
Down                          Gonion- menton
Steiner                       Gonion gnathion
Tweeds                        Tangent lower border of mandible

Q92)Facial axis connect?
a) ptm point and gnathion
b) nasion and pogion
c)line between most anterior point of soft tissue nose and soft tissue chin
d) none

Answer is a
A- Facial axis
B- Facial plane
C-Esthetic plane
Reference , bhalaji 3rd edition page 149

Q93) Perversion stands for?
a)Impacted teeth
b) lower anterior teeth crowding
c)open bite
d)buccal non occlusion


Q94) Step 4 in ackerman profit classification represent?
A) Saggital relationship
b) vertical relationship
c) transverse relationship
d) alignment

Answer is b
a- step 4
b- step 5
c- step 3
d- step 1
Reference bhalaji 3rd edition page 79

Q95) Typically rapid palatal expansion is done with a jack screw that is activated at rate of?
a)1.00 to 2.00 mm/week
b)1.00 to 2.00mm/day
c)0.5  to 1.00 mm/week
d)0.5 to 1 mm/day

Answer is d
Rapid palatal expansion is done typically with twp turns daily of jackscrew 0.5mm activation. This create 10 to 20 pound of pressure across the mid palatal suture which is enough to create microfracture of interdigitation bone spicules.In slow palatal expansion , approximately 0.5mm per week is maximum rate at which the tissues of midpalatal suture can adopt

In RPE, the ratio of skelton to dental expansion is 4:1
In Slow palatal expansion the ratio is 1:1

Q96) Mandible takes shape during?
a) 8th week
b) 6th week
c) 5th week
d) 4th week

Answer is a

Q97)Class 3 malocclusion is seen in?
a)Pierre robin sequence
b)Treacher collin syndrome
c)Goldenhar syndrome
d) Down syndrome

Answer is d. class 2 for a, b, c options

Q98) Dewey type 4 modification is?
a) crowding
b) spacing
c) anterior cross bite
d) posterior cross bite

Answer is d.
for a- dewey type 1
for b - dewey type2
for c- dewey type 3
for d- dewey type 4
Dewey type 5- Disrubted molar relation due to early loss of primary second molars

Q99) Ricket line is?
a) line passing from soft tissue pogonion to tip of nose
b) line passing from soft tissue pogonion to most prominent lip
c) line passing from soft tissue pogonion to centre of s shape curve formed by passing from nose to upper lip
d) none

answer is a
b is merrifield line
c is steiner line

Q100) Squeeze film effect was given by?
b) angel
c) dewey
d) latham

Answer is a
When very high forces are appplied the interstitial fluid of Pdl get squeezed out and moves towards apex and cervical margin and result in decrease orthodontic tooth movement.